Native American Tribes Overview: Their Culture and History Page 1     Page 2

(Photos Courtesy of Denver Museum Digital Archive and Library of Congress)
Santo Domingo Indians:

The Santo Domingo Pueblo is situated approximately
midway between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, on the banks
of the Rio Grande. By 1591 the Santo Domingo ancestors
had settled close to the present location to farm, but the
original site flooded, and the pueblo was moved several
times before it was established at its present site by the
end of the sixteenth century, still near the river and desirable farmland, but on higher ground.  

While the location was chosen for its farming potential, other geographical factors influenced the
future of the people and their art, for the pueblo is approximately thirty miles from the Cerrillos
turquoise mines, which were active from about AD 1000 until the 1930s, and also near a large
deposit of gypsum, both of which were used in their jewelry.  

The Santo Domingo have the longest jewelry-making tradition of any of the pueblos, and still make
jewelry using the traditional techniques and many of the same materials used by their ancestors.
This cannot be said of other Native American jewelers, who incorporated techniques they learned
from other cultures, most importantly silversmithing, introduced by Mexican silversmiths and
later taught at Indian schools and in the "factories" that stocked the curio shops frequented by
tourists to the Southwest.  

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, jewelry making was the main source of
income for many families within the pueblo, and several sources indicate that most families were
involved in jewelry making at some time during this period.In fact, often all members of a family
were involved in making jewelry, with different members having different skills or
Shop Heishi Necklaces

A large part of the jewelry made by the Santo Domingo consists of the
strings of beads called heishi (which means "rolled beads"), originally made
from shell and local stones such as turquoise, although by about 1900 coral
had also become popular.  These necklaces and a type of earrings called
jaclas, which consisted of short loops of turquoise heishi (often combined
with coral beads), were extremely valuable as trade material, and the Santo Domingo exchanged or
sold them for almost everything they needed.

Many early photographs of Indians from other tribes from the region show them wearing strings of
Santo Domingo turquoise or shell heishi.  In addition to making heishi necklaces and jaclas for
trade, the Santo Domingo developed ceremonial jewelry for their own use. Made from large shells
-- usually reddish spiny oyster shells acquired by trading with other tribes -- the pendants bore
geometric mosaic patterns formed from small pieces of turquoise, jet, and shell. Although they
were originally made for use in the pueblo's traditional Corn Dance, similar pendants are made for

Another style of Santo Domingo necklace consists of tear-shaped "tabs" strung on heishi. The tabs
were made from bone overlaid in the traditional mosaic style with bits of turquoise, jet, and shell.
These necklaces are also sometimes identified as Depression jewelry, but they were certainly
made earlier than that. We have found a photograph documenting their use in 1925.  

Santo Domingo Indian Rituals and Dances- Did they change after tourist influences?

For the most part, Santo Domingo jewelry was not affected by contact with other cultures, until
the twentieth century, when economic conditions made it difficult to get the shell and bone needed
to make heishi and the traditional Santo Domingo tabs and ceremonial pendants.  

They found in gypsum, the soft whitish stone from a deposit near the pueblo, a substitute for the
more expensive materials they had used previously to make heishi. The heishi made from gypsum
are longer than those made from shell, and more closely resemble earlier tubular stone beads used
by their ancestors.

In a few instances they also used gypsum as a substitute for the bone backing of tabs and
pendants, but oral tradition relates that this is also when they discovered they could use the
plastic from discarded car batteries, which could be worked with simple tools, as a backing.

According to oral tradition, in the late 1920s or early 1930s the Santo Domingo began to create
necklaces with thunderbird pendants to appeal to tourists. The earliest document we have found of
their use is a photograph published in Pedro Lemos's Indian Arts, Pueblo and Navajo in 1932.

Importantly, birds were the only life form the Santo Domingo were allowed by the traditions of
their pueblo to use to decorate their pottery and jewelry.  However, within that restriction, they
created a great variety of bird images. Most represent the thunderbird,
a motif the Harvey Company claimed was derived from Native American
pictographs, which they modified and copyrighted in 1909.

It was popular on Harvey style jewelry, and the Santo Domingo would have seen
it worn by tourists and displayed in trading posts and curio shops throughout the
Southwest.  In shape the Santo Domingo thunderbirds often resemble eagles on
American and Mexican coins and military insignia, but the decoration is carried
out in their traditional mosaic technique, albeit substituting plastic for more
expensive materials.  

In addition to salvaged turquoise chips, they used red plastic to imitate coral and the reddish spiny
oyster shell; white plastic to replace the white shell, black plastic instead of jet, and occasionally
other colors such as yellow. On a small number of pieces, the decoration is executed entirely in
turquoise chips.  
More on the Development of Santo Domingo Indian Jewelry

Zuni Indian Jewelry
Like many other early Americans, the Zuni people lived sedentary lives. They
built stone and adobe houses, farmed, hunted and pursued craft production,
whether in the making of baskets, weaving or brocading fabrics. They also
fashioned technically and aesthetically accomplished functional handbuilt pots
from the abundantly available clay. All such activities are reflected in the
decoration applied to the pots, carried out with finely ground minerals.
Information About Zuni Culture and History

Much of the decoration, mostly abstract, recalls the patterns achieved through weaving and
basketry, but here are related to the three-dimensional form. One of the most famous designs is
that of the 'heart-line deer', in which a stylised deer or similar animal, complete with antlers, has
a line from the mouth to the heart. While the significance today is not clear, it may have
represented the 'sacred breath of life'.

Zuni carved stone animals are beautiful, highly sought after and
small, most fit easily in the palm of the hand. The Zuni are centered in
New Mexico's Zuni River Valley, west of Albuquerque, near the
Arizona border. The land might never have been noticed by outsiders,
except that in 1539, Spanish explorers decided that the Hawikuh
pueblo was one of the Seven Cities of Cibola, a city of gold. This did
not do the locals any favors. But today Zuni Pueblo is one of the
most traditional Native American areas left in the state, with an
economy largely supported by the arts. Zuni carved animals can be
made of anything from shell and antler to cornhusks, and are added to enhance necklaces. Most
on the market are of stone, frequently decorated with string, feathers or beads.
Above: Zuni Wearing Carved Stone Necklace 1903.                      
 Shop Zuni Jewelry
More on Zuni Indian Jewelry Development

What separates from other carvings is their use and power. A carving is decoration; a animal
symbol offers a connection to the larger world. Through a stone carved like a bear, one
comes into contact with Bear, the embodiment of strength and introspection.

Whether known as animals, charms, amulets, or talismans, these small objects, usually
representing an animal, have existed since the earliest days of the Pueblo peoples. At first,
concretions, or stones, naturally suggestive of an animal's shape were carried for power or
protection. Carving was added to embellish or emphasize the animal form.

With anthropological research in the late nineteenth century and growing market appreciation
throughout the twentieth, the carving of stone animals has become a serious and successful art
form. While many Native American tribes produce and use carvings, the most renowned
carvers are undoubtedly the Zuni.

This skill has been honed in artistic apprenticeships within family groups, and is derived from
spiritual beliefs found in the Zuni creation story. Zuni believe that the world was originally covered
by water. The First Twins created lightning and a great fire to dry the land. To keep humans safe,
predators were struck by the lightning and turned to stone. Deep within, the animals' hearts were
kept alive, with instructions to help humankind with the magic captured in their hearts.

This spirit is often represented by a "heart line," also called "spirit line" or "breath line." The
heart line may be carved, inlaid, or painted.

Another spiritual aspect of some stone carving is the bundle offering attached with animal sinew.
Arrowheads are common in bundles and offer protection to both the stone symbol and its owner.
Although these figures are generally referred to as religious symbols, it is important to
recognize that objects offered for sale are carvings, as opposed to religious images. None have
blessed by the Zuni Medicine Society.

Materials are a significant choice for carvers. Availability and
workability are practical factors. Early carvings were from local
stone, but today's market provides a wealth of choices from
around the world. Color is a key spiritual and/or aesthetic element.

In the latter sense, an artist may choose a color that represents
the animal's natural color or may opt for a hue based on personal or
patron's preference. A very popular and fairly recent stone choice
is a marble found in Utah, which is called "Picasso" for its artistic
patterns of brown, tan, gray, white, and black. Among a wide variety
of materials, serpentine and turquoise are other frequently carved
            Zuni Working With Stone 1945
stones, and antler, bone, wood, and shells are also used.                     
Cherokee Indian Culture and Jewelry
Native American Jewelry
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indian heishi jewelry
Santo domingo indian harvest dance
zuni indian wearing necklace next to pottery
american indian Santo Domingo kiva
Santo Domingo Indian Thunderbird 1930
Zuni Wearing Necklace With Carving Stone Figures
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Iroquois Indians- The Cherokee
The video above is a glimpse at the "Trail of Tears" which has influenced
the Cherokees in everything they have done since.

As the eighteenth century opened, the impact of European trade in the piedmont of what is now the
Carolinas and Georgia could be seen in the number of Native American children of mixed parentage,
alcoholism among the natives, and the devastation caused by European-introduced diseases,
especially smallpox. Not all effects of European trade were negative, however. Most fascinating
for textile enthusiasts perhaps is how acquisition of European goods and technologies transformed
native dress and embellishment.

Before European contact, Native Americans of the Southeast obtained their decorative materials
from nature: beads made from white and purple-black seashells were threaded onto a thong, length
of sinew, or string, then combined to make belts, bracelets, and collars. The dark and light beads
were arranged to form designs, many of which probably had social, political, or religious significance.
Beads also were made from turkey bones and the bones and antlers of deer; some groups strung
bear claws and teeth to make necklaces.

Coastal and inland groups had traded beads before European contact. After contact, wampum (from
the Narragansett word for white shell beads) increasingly was used for gift exchange and formal
currency between Europeans and natives. The long wide belts of wampum that we associate today
with the conclusion of treaty negotiations probably were not produced by Native Americans until
after European contact, although the techniques used to assemble the belts--finger weaving or a
simple bow loom, were practiced precontact.
More About Cherokee Indian Beadwork

Other natural decorative materials that predated contact
included porcupine quills. Colored blue, red, yellow, and black
with vegetable dyes, they were used to embellish clothing,
accessories, and especially moccasins.

Trade in deerskins by the Cherokee with the English began in
the seventeenth century and increased in the eighteenth
when a deadly cattle plague in Europe caused Britain to ban
imports of cattle and hides from Europe. The English used
the American deerskins for harnesses, saddles, gloves and
shoes, men's clothing, and bookbindings.

In exchange for the tens of thousands of deerskins that
Cherokee Indians annually traded to the merchants of
Charleston, South Carolina, they received guns and ammunition;
ready-made clothing and shoes; blankets; imported cotton,
linen, woolen, and silk yardage; tools including knives and scissors; and rum.

Textiles had become staple goods in native cultures, used to augment or replace parts of
traditional native deerskin attire. They included coarse woolen stroud and duffel fabrics and
blankets; plain, figured, and striped cotton calicoes; coarse and fine linen; ready-made shirts, hose,
and worsted caps; and bindings, garters, ribbons, and tapes.

The Cherokee were discriminating shoppers. For example, some purchased large blue and red glass
beads whereas others preferred small black and white ones. As the Philadelphia merchant James
Logan emphasized to his English essay in 1714, the Cherokee are particular about the color and
quality of beads they buy for making jewelry.
Shop Cherokee Jewelry
Cherokee Indian Trail of Tears
For Americans, the Cherokees stood in the way of the relentless westward push of the energetic
American republic. Some Cherokees had voluntarily moved west in the years 1815 to 1820.

Eventually, rumors of gold in the Cherokee lands gave that Indian fighter, President Andrew
Jackson, the excuse he had wanted. His own version of a final solution of the Indian problem
consisted of rounding up the entire nation, usually at the point of a bayonet, herding the members
in¬to camps and shipping them west under the U.S. Army's supervision.

Cherokees, those starving, bedraggled refugees from homes in Tennessee, North Carolina and
Georgia, did not come west planning to build the city of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. After all, they had
been the most advanced native Americans east of the Mississippi. Their great chief, Sequoyah, had
given them an alphabet of their own. They welcomed various Christian missionaries, had a
democratic government, and many owned vast plantations.

Museum ethnologist James Mooney came to Tahlequah in the 1880s to interview the Cherokees he
discovered that the lapse of half a century had not sufficed to wipe out the memories of the
January 1839 march during which 30 percent of the tribe died, including Chief John Ross* wife,
Quatie. The Cherokees called it "The Trail Where They Cried," called today "The Trail of Tears."

A Cherokee Indian Woman, 1900                   Cherokee Couple Waiting For Ritual
cherokee indians watching ritual
cherokee indian women with jewelry
zuni indian with jewelry
Iroquois indian jewelry maker
cherokee indian medicine man